Mangosteen Research Update
Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen)J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 22;54(6):2077-82. Jung HA, Su BN, Keller WJ, Mehta RG, Kinghorn AD.Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
Garcinia mangostana L. (commonly known as mangosteen) was selected for detailed study. Repeated chromatography of a CH2Cl2-soluble extract of the pericarp led to the isolation of two new highly oxygenated prenylated xanthones, 8-hydroxycudraxanthone G and mangostingone [7-methoxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-oxo-3-butenyl)-1,3,6-trihydroxyxanthone, together with 12 known xanthones, cudraxanthone G, 8-deoxygartanin, garcimangosone B, garcinone D, garcinone E, gartanin (8), 1-isomangostin, alpha-mangostin, gamma-mangostin, mangostinone, smeathxanthone A, and tovophyllin A.
Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria
J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 3;101(1-3):330-3. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of Thai medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Crude extracts were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion method showed that 13 medicinal plants could inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes. Among those, Senna alata, Eupatorium odoratum, Garcinia mangostana, and Barleria lupulina had strong inhibitory effects. Our data indicated that Garcinia mangostana had a strong inhibitory effect on Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Therefore, mangosteen would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for acne.
Antiproliferative activity of Thai medicinal plant extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line.
Fitoterapia. 2004 Jun;75(3-4):375-7.Ethanolic extracts of selected nine Thai medicinal plants were tested for antiproliferative activity against SKBR3 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT assay. Mangosteen showed the most potent activity.
Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jan;90(1):161-6.This study was designed to determine the antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidative properties of crude methanolic extract from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (family Guttiferae) (mangosteen) using human breast cancer (SKBR3) cell line as a model system. SKBR3 cells were cultured in the presence of mangosteen extract at various concentrations. Mangosteen showed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation.
We found that antiproliferative effect of mangosteen was associated with apoptosis on breast cancer cell line by determinations of morphological changes and oligonucleosomal DNA fragments. In addition, mangosteen at various concentrations and incubation times were also found to inhibit ROS production. These investigations suggested that the mangosteen extract had strong antiproliferation, potent antioxidation and induction of apoptosis. Thus, it indicates that mangosteen extract has potential for cancer chemoprevention which is dose dependent as well as exposure time dependent.
Induction of apoptosis by xanthones from mangosteen in human leukemia cell lines
J Nat Prod. 2003 Aug;66(8):1124-7.
We examined the effects of six xanthones from the pericarps of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana, on the cell growth inhibition of human leukemia cell line HL60. All xanthones in mangosteen displayed growth inhibitory effects. Among them, alpha-mangostin showed complete inhibition at 10 microM through the induction of apoptosis.
Antimycobacterial activity of prenylated xanthones from the fruits of mangosteen
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2003 Jul;51(7):857-9.Prenylated xanthones, isolated from the fruit hulls and the edible arils and seeds of mangosteen, were tested for their antituberculosis potential. Alpha- and beta-mangostins and garcinone B exhibited strong inhibitory effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Garcinone E, a xanthone derivative, has potent cytotoxic effect against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.
Planta Med. 2002 Nov;68(11):975-9.Treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with chemotherapy has generally been disappointing and it is most desirable to have more effective new drugs. We extracted and purified 6 xanthone compounds from the rinds (peel) of the fruits of Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen), and then tested the cytotoxic effects of these compounds on a panel of 14 different human cancer cell lines including 6 hepatoma cell lines. Our results have shown that one of the xanthone derivatives from mangosteen which could be identified as garcinone E has potent cytotoxic effect on all HCC cell lines as well as on the other gastric and lung cancer cell lines included in the screen. We suggest that garcinone E extract from mangosteen may be potentially useful for the treatment of certain types of cancer.
Inhibitions of histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by mangosteen, a Thai medicinal plant
Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Sep;25(9):1137-41.The fruit hull of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L. has been used as a Thai indigenous medicine for many years. However, the mechanism of action of mangosteen as a medicine has not been elucidated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of mangosteen extracts (100% ethanol, 70% ethanol, 40% ethanol and water) on histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis. We found that the 40% ethanol extract of mangosteen inhibited IgE-mediated histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells with greater potency than the water extract of Rubus suavissimus that has been used as an anti-allergy crude drug in Japan. All extracts of mangosteen potently inhibited A23187-induced prostaglandin E2 synthesis in C6 rat glioma cells, while the water extract of Rubus suavissimus had no effect. The 40% ethanol extract of mangosteen inhibited the prostaglandin E2 synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner with relatively lower concentrations than the histamine release. In addition, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reactions in rats were significantly inhibited by this ethanol extract as well as by the water extract of Rubus suavissimus. These results suggest that the 40% ethanol extract of mangosteen has potent inhibitory activities of both histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis.
Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative in mangosteen, in C6 rat glioma cells
Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Jan 1;63(1):73-9.In the present study, we examined the effect of gamma-mangostin, a tetraoxygenated diprenylated xanthone contained in mangosteen, on arachidonic acidcascade in C6 rat glioma cells. This study is a first demonstration that gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative from mangosteen, directly inhibits COX activity.
Evaluation of the antifungal activity of natural xanthones from Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) and their synthetic derivativesJ Nat Prod. 1997 May;60(5):519-24.The antifungal activity of several xanthones isolated from the fruit hulls of mangosteen and some derivatives of mangostin against three phytopathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum vasinfectum, Alternaria tenuis, and Dreschlera oryzae, has been evaluated. The natural xanthones from mangosteen showed good inhibitory activity against the three fungi.
Active constituents against HIV-1 protease from Mangosteen
Planta Med. 1996 Aug;62(4):381-2.The ethanol extract of Mangosteen showed potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease. The activity-guided purification of the extract resulted in the isolation of two active, known compounds. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses as mangostin and gamma-mangostin.
Mangostin inhibits the oxidative modification of human low density lipoprotein.Free Radic Res. 1995 Aug;23(2):175-84.The oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) may play an important role in atherosclerosis. We investigated the possible antioxidant effects of mangosteen, isolated from Garcinia mangostana, on metal ion dependent (Cu2+) and independent (aqueous peroxyl radicals) oxidation of human LDL. From these results, we conclude that mangosteen is acting as a free radical scavenger to protect the LDL from oxidative damage in this in vitro system.
ISHS Acta Horticulture 680: III WOCMAP Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Volume 6: Traditional Medicine and Nutraceuticals
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF THE EXTRACT FROM GARCINIA MANGOSTANA LINN..
Authors: N. Pongphasuk, W. Khunkitti, M. Chitcharoenthum
Keywords: acute toxicity, Clinacanthus nutans, Cyperus rotundus, Nyctanthes arbortristis, sub-chronic toxicity, Thunbergia laurifolia
The anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Garcinia mangostana Linn., Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn., Cyperus rotundus L. and Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau were tested in mice using carrageenan induced paw edema.
All extracts (5 g/kg, p.o.) had anti-inflammatory activity at 3 h (P>0.01) and 6 h (P>0.001). Among all the extracts studied, the extract of G. mangostana showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity with 45% inhibition at these two time points. The result of dose response study (1.0, 2.0, 4.0 g/kg, p.o.) showed dose-dependent activity. Analgesic activity was also tested using heated glass. None of the extracts had marked analgesic activity. Sub-chronic toxicity study of G. mangostana extract showed low safety (TI 2, LD50= 9.37 g/kg).
Mice fed this extract at 1, 2, 4, 8 g/kg/d, showed death rates of 0, 15, 17, 43% respectively during 30 d. T. laurifolia extract had anti-inflammation efficacy 2-folds greater than G. mangostana extract (ED50 T. laurifolia = 2.51 g/kg, ED50 G. mangostana = 5.51 g/kg).
In the toxicity study of T. laurifolia extract in mice at 1, 2, 4, 8 g/kg/d, no mice died during 30 d. T. laurifolia extract was the most effective and safe.