Essential Fatty Acids

The article will print when it is fully downloaded.
You can view many more useful articles and order online at
Customer Service From UK - 0845 200 8544 International - 0044 845 200 8544

The Importance of Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) and Facts that May Contradict What You Have Already ‘Learned’  

By John Claydon D.Hom


This subject can appear complicated and contradictory, so if you consider yourself up to speed then it is essential that you read the information from Brian Peskin, a world leading researcher on the subject.


Summary of Healthy consumption of oils/fats.

1/  Avoid all frying or roasting of  all seed oils including soybean oil. One of  the biggest factors in the modern explosion of disease, including cardio-vascular disease, obesity, diabetes, stroke, cancer and neurodegenerative disease and more !

Also avoid the consumption of seed and vegetable oils even when raw, unheated and cold pressed except possibly is very small amounts (e.g a teaspoon daily) such as hemp oil, black seed oil.

2/ Obtain essential fatty acids from raw seeds and raw nuts.

3/ Do consume healthy monounsaturated oils from e.g olive oil

4/ Do consume healthy saturated fats and other factors from butter, preferably organic. The more golden yellow the better. Other beneficial sources of saturated and mixed fats from coconut oil, egg yolks (with minimal boiling or poaching so the yolk is still liquid, or ideally raw)

To get educated on the dangers of heated and processed seed oils watch:


The fats/oils in meat and fish become toxic when fried or roasted as any heat especially above the boiling point of water deranges the fats. This is more so with the polyunsaturated fatty acids that are present in meat and fish. (Saturated fat is less prone to damage by heat) 


Note: Every cell in the body has a membrane that contains a variety of fats a high proportion of which are saturated. The brain requires plenty of cholesterol and possibly the  ideal balance of different fats for the brain is provided by egg yolk.


If you are relatively new to this subject then the task is easier. Just supplement your diet with mainly Omega 6 unprocessed oils that have not been heated or processed in any way (such as a handful of raw nuts every day - mainly use walnuts, and almonds - if you have trouble chewing, grind them in a coffee/food grinder - you can add some sea salt and olive oil to make a raw nut spread - keep in the fridge and eat daily - about one dessertspoon).  If you would like a ready made supplement I cannot recommend a more therapeutic supply of unprocessed, unheated, oil than Black Seed Oil (Available from Regenerative Nutrition). Black Seed Oilthis will compliment the raw nuts.


Avoid all processed and heated oils like the plague. These are the biggest single threats to your health. Most processed food has processed and heated oils added such as hydrogenated oils, vegetable oils (heat extracted normally) trans-fatty acids and so on. Frying with vegetable oils produces degraded oils that Brian Peskin discusses in his writings. If you must fry, coconut oil is the least toxic, on heating, olive oil coming in second…but best to use low temperature frying, or even better not to fry at all.


Do NOT avoid Cholesterol containing foods. All of the newspapers and health services are simply copying the incorrect information given on this subject (this is discussed further in the article Statins and Increased Cancer: The Hidden Story and a New Solutionby Brian Peskin, BSEE. Cholesterol is an essential nutrient and without it we could die. It does not clog the arteries, and has been contained abundantly in the natural diet of man for thousands of years with no link to heart disease.


Fish Oils and vitamin D deficiency

Do not take fish oils as your main supplement for essential fatty acids or even as part of your essential fatty acid supplements. Previously I gave the advice, like many other nutritionists to take regular cod liver oil as a way of not only combating essential fatty acid deficiency but also as a way of reducing vitamin D and A deficiency. Brian Peskin describes, and as always gives true results not just theory, as to why supplementing with fish oil is often counterproductive.


Many people suffer a sunlight deficiency and hence Vitamin D deficiency. It does not matter how good the diet and supplements are without sufficient vitamin D. This is essential for optimum health. Research has established that at least 1000IU a day of vitamin D is required, and preferably double that for the first few months, to overcome chronic failure to expose the skin regularly to sunlight. This is available in supplement form as Colloidal Minerals with Boron & Vitamin D.


As can be seen in the chart below nature provides vastly more omega 6 than 3 in nuts and seeds, and this corresponds to our bodily needs. Linseed does contain more omega 3 than 6, but in a natural situation as they are so small it would be difficult to obtain a large amount on a regular basis. We do not recommend Linseeds or linseed oil as a supplement due to the need for more omega 6 than 3 as discussed in this article, and Brian Peskins articles and extensive research. Of the common nuts walnuts do contain the most amount of omega 3 in proportion to Omega 6 but still contain far more omega 6 than omega 3.


Summary: We now recommend Black Seed Oil, as a high quality source of Parent Omega 6, (maintenance use 1 teaspoon daily but more for serious health problems) supplemented with a variety of nuts, e.g Walnuts, Almonds, and pumpkin, and sunflower seeds, (or their unheated cold extracted oils) preferably in their whole form, eaten raw and fresh. Just one heaped dessertspoon of any of these daily is sufficient, or more if used in the treatment of a serious health disorder.  Do not consume roasted nuts as this will supply a source of degraded oils.


Heated, degraded, hydrogenated oils are transferred to cell membranes and create the basis of serious disease including Coronary heart disease and cancer. Raw unheated Parent essential oils especially omega 6 is required to nourish the cell membranes and are essential for many metabolic functioning including delivery of oxygen to every cell in the body. Cholesterol is the transporter of these essential oils around the body, so cholesterol deficient diets or cholesterol lowering drugs reduce the transport of these essential nutrients to the cells.


All these points are discussed in detail in Brian Peskin articles, the links to them are given at the end of this information


Essential Fatty Acids in NUTS

Fig 2. Content of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Essential Fatty Acids in Nuts Approximate EFA content in grams per 100 grams


Omega-3s (100g)



Omega-6s (100g)





























Content of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Essential Fatty Acids in Seeds

Approximate EFA content in grams per 100 grams


Omega-3s (100g)



Omega-6s (100g)


Flax / Linseeds



Flax / Linseeds


Pumpkin seeds



Pumpkin seeds


Sunflower seeds



Sunflower seeds


Sesame seeds



Sesame seeds




Parent Essential Oils (PEOs) that get center stage.

by Brian Scott Peskin, BSEE


Physicians and health professionals around the world rely on my scrupulously detailed research. Understanding how PEOs work is essential to your daily nutritional regimen. I

recommend that everyone always demand to see solid science before taking any supplements or medications so you can avoid future problems.


Importance of Special Fats Called PEOs

Our bodies require special fats that make it possible, among other important functions, for sufficient oxygen to reach the cells. These special fats are highly oxygen absorbing, and are called EFAs. However, the PEOs (Parent Essential Oils)—not the commonly termed EFAs—are what’s important. PEOs consist of parent omega-6 and parent omega-3. "Parent” means they are the whole form of the essential oil as it occurs in nature before it’s broken down or built up into other biochemicalsubstances, which are called "derivatives.”


Why are the parent forms—PEOs—so important? Many of the EFAs sold in the stores consist of manufactured EFA derivatives. Your body doesn’t need or want these derivatives, because it makes its own derivatives out of the Parent Essential Oils (PEOs) you consume as it needs them. Taking fish oil and other health-food-store "EFAs” often overdoses you with derivatives, which can be very harmful. However, PEOs are essential and must be supplied from outside the body every day, from foods and certain oils. Your body can’t manufacture PEOs (commonly termed EFAs) on its own—they MUST be consumed daily.


Every one of your 100 trillion cells is surrounded by a membrane (a thin enclosure).The cell membrane is half fat—it contains virtually no structural carbohydrate. A portion of the fat making up the membrane is saturated. "Saturated” means chemically non-reactive—in other words, it doesn’t easily react with, or absorb, the oxygen that comes into contact with it. The other portion of the fat in the membrane is, however, "unsaturated”—it DOES easily absorb oxygen. One of the major functions of unsaturated (also called "polyunsaturated”) fats in the cell membrane is to help the inside of the cell absorb oxygen. The saturated fats in the membrane function as a barrier to help protect the delicate, highly reactive, oxygen-absorbing, energizing, unsaturated fats in the membrane.




Extract from the article

The Scientific Calculation of the

Optimum PEO Ratio  by by Brian Scott Peskin, BSEE


Important Organ and Tissue PEO Ratios—We Need to

Know This.


It is necessary for us to study the PEO composition of various tissues and organs like your brain, skin, heart and muscle to discover the overall PEO requirement of the body. It is known from pathology studies that the brain and nervous system have a ratio of one part omega-6 to one part omega-3 (1 to 1).

Here’s a shocker that appeared in the medical journal article: "Fatty acid profile of skeletal muscle phospholipids in trained and untrained young men”


"A little-known but very key fact about muscle structure that many nutrition writers overlook is that muscle contains from 5.5 to 7.5 times more omega-6 than omega-3, depending on the degree of physical condition! Extremely fit individuals require less omega- because their oxygen-transferring efficiency, including an increased number of cell mitochondria, is greater than in non-exercising individuals. But because most of us are not elite athletes, we require an even greater amount of omega-6. So, on average, a muscle contains 6.5 times more omega-6 than omega-3 (a ratio of 6.5 to 1). Also, one must understand most other tissues in the body contain a 4 to 1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3.


The next thing to consider is what percentage of your body weight do the various organs constitute? We find that brain and nerve-related organs make up only about 3% of body weight, a very small quantity. The remaining organs, such as your heart, liver, skin and pancreas, make up approximately 9% of body weight. And the last—a very important figure—is the percentage of body weight your muscles comprise. Muscle accounts for close to half of human body weight (50%). Skin comprises approximately 4% of body weight.

( Agneta Anderson, et. al., American Journal of Endocrinological Metabolism, 279: E744-E75.27)


Parent Essential Oil Supplement Analysis Shockingly, there is virtually NO omega-3 in skin! This is a reason why omega-3 recommendations have done nothing to decrease the skin cancer epidemic.


Ratio of Tissue Composition

Tissue                      PEO Omega 3 PEO Omega 6


Brain/Nervous System                  1  :  1

Organs and Other Tissues             4   : 1

Muscles                                   6.5  : 1

Skin*                                    1000   :1

Adipose Tissue (bodyfat)             22   :1


There is virtually NO omega-3 in skin tissue. Now, many nutritional writers state that simply because the brain has a 1 to 1 omega-6 to 3 ratio, a 1 to 1 omega-6 to 3 ratio makes the ideal supplement. But this analysis is wrong. It should be obvious from the table below that the majority of our PEO-containing tissues and organs require much more unadulterated omega-6 than omega-3 to function properly. If we use the PEO ratio of the brain and nervous system tissue (1 to 1), more than half the remaining tissues in the body will be shorted on omega-6 PEOs.


On the other hand, keeping these tissues supplied with enough unprocessed omega-6 is the key that most nutrition writers overlook.


Letting any tissues run short on these omega-6 PEOs, as will occur if you follow the most prevalent nutritional recommendations, creates a significant omega-6 deficit.

It is obvious that the low omega-6/3 ratio in the brain of just 1:1 is more than offset by the skin’s extremely high ratio of omega-6/3 of 1000:1.This conclusion is based both on the total weight of the skin being greater than the brain’s weight and the tremendous difference of Omega-6/3 ratio between these organs. The ratios are quite conservative; there is actually even more parent omega-6 than indicated above.


One Last Important Question About Supplementation

You may be wondering why the animal protein that we consume from beef, other red meats, poultry, eggs, pork and fish doesn’t give us enough of the required parent omega-6. Why should we need to acquire so much through supplementation?


To answer this, you need to understand several things. First, heat significantly destroys both omega-3 (extremely heat sensitive) and omega-6 (very heat sensitive) PEOs. The less cooked the proteins are, the better sources they are of parent omega-6 and 3. However, few people enjoy or can stomach meat, fish or eggs that are raw or only lightly cooked.So large quantities of PEOs are lost through cooking. On top of this, the parent omega-6 content of the tissues and organs of animals can vary greatly depending on what the animals are fed. While cattle and other grazing animals’ original natural foods—live grass and other plants growing in pastures—have a more balanced PEO content, the grains that much of the cattle being raised today are fed have a highly unbalanced PEO content in favor of omega-6 by as high as 10 to 1. This sounds wonderful—just what we need—until you factor in that cooking renders a significant portion of those omega-6s inactive. Also, PEO damage occurs as a result of the chemically assisted farming methods begun in the 1900s to treat both soils and crops.


In light of all these factors, the best answer is to cook protein foods thoroughly and supplement your PEOs based on the calculation below.



There is widespread misunderstanding concerning these interesting and critical substances—another misunderstanding that is responsible for widespread, yet incorrect, nutritional recommendations telling us to "take lots of omega-3.” Eicosanoids are your body’s cellular analogy to hormones. But unlike hormones, they work in your body with lightning speed and don’t last long. Furthermore, they act locally in the cells and don’t actually enter the bloodstream, because their function is so rapid.


Eicosanoids include prostaglandins (influence cholesterol and cardiovascular health, etc.) and leukotrienes (influence allergies and asthma, etc.). These substances act like cellular hormones, although they act much faster and have much shorter life spans. They do not enter the bloodstream the way hormones do. Prostaglandin function is often misunderstood. There are three classes of prostaglandins that concern us: PGE1, PGE2, and PGE3.


Omega-3’s derivative PGE3 isn’t nearly as powerful or as effective asOmega-6’s PGE1. The function of omega-6 and its derivatives like AA (arachadonic acid) is to prevent, not cause inflammation (unless required by the body to seal a wound). The mistake often made by researchers is the assumption that increased AA automatically increases PGE2—an inflammatory. This assumption is incorrect because the body manufactures PGE2 AS NEEDED.


All EFA derivatives are manufactured as needed and this is no exception.

Arachadonic acid is anything but harmful: AA is the precursor to prostacyclin—the most potent anti-aggretory agent (a natural "blood thinner”)


The Scientific Calculation of the Optimum PEO™ Ratio

and inhibitor of platelet adhesion. AA contributes to smooth working of vascular function and blood flow. AA provides eicosanoids for response to injury—acting as a healer—helping to seal the wound. It is critical.


While the parent omega-3s and 6s are used throughout your body predominantly "as is,” just a small amount of omega-3 and omega-6 derivatives are made into these eicosanoids after many biochemical modifications, "as needed.” For example, the eicosanoids made from omega-3 PEOs come from the EFA derivatives DHA and EPA (which your body makes from parent omega EFAs "as needed”). Another example is the eicosanoids made from omega-6 PEOs—your body manufactures them by modifying arachidonic acid (which your body makes from parent omega-6 or takes from animal fats ready-made—if they aren’t adulterated). Omega-6 eicosanoids are critical:PGE1 eicosanoids formed from parent omega-6 are known from the medical textbooks to be fast-acting, anti-inflammatory and to have significant immune-enhancing properties. We need to ensure that plenty of them can be made. They are much more powerful than omega-3’s PGE3. It is also vital to note that the omega-3 and omega-6 eicosanoids work together in a complementary manner. Neither is ever found alone in your body. For example, one increases blood pressure while the other decreases blood pressure. This required natural balance is another reason that the current nutritional recommendations to highly favor unprocessed omega-3 PEOs over omega-6 PEOs are harmful. Doing so will unbalance your system. In fact, we must warn that overdosing on omega-3 can lead to profuse internal bleeding from eicosanoid overproduction!


Debra, my wife, used to frequently develop "black and blue” marks from bumping into furniture. She could never figure out what was causing them. It was only after she started taking PEOs with more omega parent 6 than "parent” omega-3 that this excessive bruising stopped.


Parent Essential Oil Supplement Analysis

The bottom line is that Nature makes both omega-3 and 6 eicosanoids AS NEEDED from parent PEOs and doesn’t require our direct intervention. So supply unadulterated parent omegas and let Nature do her job.


The Correct Supplement Calculation

What are safe and effective quantities of omega-3 and omega-6 PEOs for supplementation? As explained above, the western diet is estimated to contain an effective (still capable of oxygen-transference) ratio of a maximum of 6 to 1 omega-6 to omega-3. Additionally, we have seen that the majority of cells in the body require a ratio of at least 6.5 to 1 omega-6 to 3. The difference between the estimated good PEOs obtained from the diet and the cells’ requirement is 0.5 parts of parent omega-6. This amount needs to be supplemented. To this amount we will add an amount of extra parent omega-6 to allow the "good” omega-6 to effectively combat and overpower the bad”  (transfats and otherwise adulterated) parent omega-6 in the diet: For this purpose we will add a conservative 0.5—1.0 parts organic parent omega-6. Therefore, we conclude that we need to supplement an additional 1.0-1.5 parts of organic parent omega-6 for every 1 part of organic parent omega-3 to meet the body’s needs. You will soon discover that additional omega-6 is required for "derivative” manufacture.


An EFA supplement should contain a minimum ratio of at least 1:1parent omega-6, at the lowest end, up to 2.5:1 organic, parent omega-6 to 3 at the upper end. Empirically, we find that these oils don’t add according to the standard chemical rules of proportionality. Once the additional EFA requirements are identified, the supplement calculation is almost completely determined. The only additional information needed is a detailed analysis of the omega derivatives rates and the understanding of beta-oxidation of most parent omega-3, which follows. This difference is another reason that most researchers miss deducing the correct supplemental parent omega-6/3ratio.


A supplement containing a ratio of between 1:1 parent omega-6 to omega-3, to 2.5:1 parent omega-6 to 3 meets these requirements. This is calculated by adding the supplemented PEOs to the estimated good PEOs obtained in the diet.


The result is that the final ratio of "good” omega-6 to omega-3 PEOs totals between 7:1 to 8.5:1 parts omega-6 to 3. This amount of extra omega-6 (the difference between our body requirement of 6.5:1 and the higher total ratio of 7:1 to 8.5:1) allows the "good” omega-6 to effectively combat and overpower the "bad” omega-6, giving us the advantage that is required for protection.


The Scientific Calculation of the Optimum PEO™ Ratio

Case Closed: There is NO NEED to reduce unprocessed "Parent” Omega-6 intake! In fact, more IS required—The "Experts” & Popular Press are wrong again!


As one of the world’s leading nutritional scientists, MA Crawford, states in Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2000 Sep;63(3):131-4, in an article titled "Commentary on the workshop statement. Essentiality of and recommended dietary intakes for Omega-6 and Omega-3-fatty acids,” "I have some difficulty with the statement on the need to reduce LA (parent omega-6) of the diet because ‘This is necessary to reduce adverse effects of excess of arachidonic acid (AA-an EFA derivative) and its eicosanoid products.’ Linking LA and AA in this way also implies a direct conversion of LA to AA, which is not the case. In fact, a very high dietary LA will reduce membrane AA. Also, I have some difficulty with the concept of a unitary ratio [1:1] when there is clear disunity [significantly GREATER omega-6] in the biological activities of the different parent and LCP (long chain polyunsaturated) PEOs. Hence the concept of omega-6/3 ratios based on activity equality between omega-6 and 3 does not reflect the biological reality.”


Professor Crawford clearly understands how much more parent omega-6 is used in tissue and biochemical activity than parent omega-3. The American diet provides much more parent omega-6 than parent omega-3. Our analysis adds in the factor that the majority of the omega-6 in the modern diet is processed (ruined); therefore, that we need "a little extra” of the organic, unprocessed parent omega-6 to overpower the processed, adulterated (damaged) omega-6 found in numerous supermarket and restaurant products.


Comments on Supposed Adverse Effects of Arachidonic Acid

[an omega-6 derivative]. Dr. Crawford Continues...

"…The comment on adverse effects of AA [arachidonic acid] seem to me misleading… The adverse effect idea arose because of therole of AA as a precursor of thromboxane and other eicosanoids participating in activating thrombus formation and the inflammatory process.” Here is what we need to know:


" In practice, AA is a major component of the endothelial [inner arterial lining] phosphoglycerides, particularly on the inner cell membrane layer. AA and adrenic acid are consistent companions in other cell membranes. It is the precursor for prostacyclin: a vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet adhesion. "…AA acts as contributor to the smooth working of blood flow and vascular function.” "… If there is damage to the endothelium, such as in bruising,infection or cutting, then the phospholipases release AA. In the free form, and in conjunction with activated platelets, AA is peroxidized to provide eicosanoids for the response to injury. "Thus, they [AA] contribute to vasoconstriction and thrombosus to seal the wound. Without this response we would be in trouble.” The same principle applies to the inflammation response which again is much needed for survival. AA is anything but the dark side.


"… The problem is that certain chronic disease conditions such as arthritis and ischemic heart disease, the damage already done, results in chronic stimulation of this response to injury… This is not the fault of AA or DGLA, but of the original cause of damage ….” (Emphasis added.)


Here’s more support for Dr. Crawford’s analysis. The article titled "Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Implications,” states that "AA in the phospholipids of Eskimos [consuming lots of parent omega-6 from natural,

unprocessed, meat] is approximately one-third of that in Danes.”

Dr. Crawford correctly understands that more omega-6 than omega-3 is required!


? Life-Systems Engineering Science Commentary

AA is critical. Don’t let anyone tell you that parent omega-6 causes a "problem” in excess AA production. Arachidonic acid (AA) is a critical biochemical component, and occurs in virtually every cell we have! It is the building block of the most potent anti-aggretory ("helps blood thinning”) agent known (prostacyclin). This omega-6 derivative also inhibits platelet adhesion (a natural "blood thinner). AA helps SOLVE vascular problems (British Medical Journal, (1983) Vol. 39, No. 3, pages 271-276) as a response to injury in a fashion like cholesterol. So once again, just like cholesterol, the "problem solver” is incorrectly blamed as the cause of the problem. There is always a balance between opposing forces. For example, one biological substance increases blood pressure and another one decreases blood pressure. Even though we frequently hear the terms good and bad, there is no "good” or "bad.” There is only complementary function. We must ensure our bodies have enough biochemical substances to ensure both effects can be carried out automatically.


The article, "What is the role of alpha-linolenic acid [parent omega-3] for mammals,” Lipids 2002 Dec;37(12):1113-23, reveals that the major metabolic route of ALA (parent omega-3) in the body is beta-oxidation [burning for energy!]. ALA accumulates in specific sites in the body of mammals, and only a small portion of the dietary ALA is converted to DHA.


Once again we see most of the parent omega-3 is not wanted! Few specific tissues require much omega-3, AND little omega-3 quantities of derivatives are produced.


Please be careful of excess omega-3 recommendations and consumption. The article "Increased alpha-linolenic acid [parent omega-3] intake increases tissue alpha-linolenic content and apparent oxidation with little effect on tissue docosahexaenoic acid in the guinea pig,” Lipids 2000 Apr;35(4):395-400, states, "Linoleic acid (LA) accumulates throughout the body of most mammals, whereas alpha-linolenic acid ( ALA) is rarely found in those tissues to the same extent as LA.”


Once again, we see how more parent omega-6 is used in tissue. Most importantly, we see an overdose of omega-3 leads to an incorrect increase in cellular omega-3! The excess can’t get burned. You shall soon discover how it gets wrongly "shoved” into the cell and the cell will improperly function! The same type of result occurs in humans.


WARNING: Too much omega-3, omega-6 derivatives,or defective PEOs ruin the cell membrane structure and minimize your level of protection.


For the full article, plus references see:

The Scientific Calculation of the Optimum PEO Ratio  by Brian Peskin, BSEE



Also see the other articles ..highly recommended, on the subject of essential fatty acids and health by Brian Scott Peskin, BSEE

These discuss more fully the dramatic relation of essential fatty acids to health and disease:


EFAs, Oxygenation, and Cancer Prevention:

A New Solution

by Brian Scott Peskin, BSEE


Statins and Increased Cancer:

The Hidden Story and a New Solution

by Brian Peskin, BSEE


All relevant articles can be fond on Brian Peskin’s site



There is no intent to suggest a cure or dianosis of any health disorder. The statements in the articel have not been approved by the FDA. The Information is for educational purposes only